Ass, Complex, and Food: Paper I have to read: 2. New Ways of Thinking Among living systems, there are many examples of decentraized phenomena. As ants forage for food, for example, their trail patterns are determined not by the dictates of the queen ant, but by local nteractions among thousands of worker ants. In the immune system, armies of antibodies seek out bacteria in a systematic, coordinated attack–without any “generals” organizing the battle plan. The antibodies are organized without an organizer, coordnated without a coorcinator But seeng the world in terms of decentraized interactiors is a dfficult shift for many people. It requires a furdarrental shift in perspective, a new way of looking at the workd. At some deep level people have strong attachments to centralzed ways of thinking. When people see patterns in the world (ike a flack of birds), they often assume that there is some type of centralized control (a leader of the flock). And in constructing artificial systems, people often impose centraized control where none is needed (for example, using top-down, hierarchical programming structures to control a robot’s behavior) Accordng to this way of thinking, a pattern can exist only if someone (or something) creates and orchestrates the pattern. Everything must have a single cause, an utimate controling factor. The continuing resistance to evolutionary theories is an example: Many people stil insist that someone or something must have explicity designed the complex, orderly structures that we call Life. As Wiliam Paley argued nearty two centuries ago (Paley, 1802): If you found a watch on the ground, you would assume that it must have had a maker; so must not the same be true of lving systems, which are incredbly more compiex? My ADD ass: iM inSpIrEd NoW “I have to make art for the world!” (presses kaleidoscope)

Ass, Complex, and Food: Paper I have to read:
 2. New Ways of Thinking
 Among living systems, there are many examples of decentraized phenomena. As ants forage for food, for example, their trail patterns are determined not by the dictates of the queen ant, but by
 local nteractions among thousands of worker ants. In the immune system, armies of antibodies seek out bacteria in a systematic, coordinated attack--without any